Cardiology (from cardio
“heart” and logia
“science”) is a part of medicine studying
structure, function, diseases of heart and vessels, causes of their
diseases, development mechanisms, clinical symptoms in
cardiology, diagnostics, and also developing treatment methods in
cardiology (including surgical), prophylaxis, problems of
medical rehabilitation in patients with
cardiovascular system affection.
- Major factors of risk of cardiovascular diseases development
- The age – men at the age of 45 and over; women at the age
of 50 and over.
- The heightened level of cholesterol – over 5,2 mmol/l.
- The heightened level of lipoproteins of low density
and the lowered level of lipoproteins of high density.
- The excessive taking of alcoholic drinks
- Accompanying pathology (first of all – diabetes, thyrotoxicosis,
diseases kidneys diseases , climax, etc.
- The heredity factor (a number of cardiological diseases can
be inherited – for example an arterial hypertension, ischemic
heart disease )
- And one of the most important risk factors of development of a
cardiovascular pathology – stress.
- The most representative heart diseases which
practicing cardiologists have to face are the
arterial hypertension and ischemic heart disease (that
includes such forms as myocardial infarction and
stenocardia). One should pay special attention to
arterial hypertension. Cardiologists sometimes call arterial
hypertension «a silent murderer». Arterial hypertension has
got this name as it silently, gradually leads to
irreversible changes in a human organism.
- Arterial hypertension causes development of the
- Insult (ischemic and hemorrhagic)
- Stenocardia and a myocardial infarction
- Chronic renal insufficiency
- Depraved vision
- Affection of the vessels of low extremities.
According to the last recommendations of the World
Organization of Public Health Services, 1999, the normal
level of arterial blood pressure is under 130/85 mm hg, the
level of blood pressure between 130/85 and 140/90 mm hg
is considered as high normal, and blood pressure
140/90 mm hg and over is considered as arterial hypertension.
Nowadays in the world there are a lot of different
preparations reducing arterial pressure. Modern technologies
give possibility to prescribe antihypertensive
medicines once or twice a day. However in most cases
the treatment of arterial hypertension must
be combined ( taking of two and more medicines
together ). And in such situation consultation of the
cardiologist to match the most effective
combination of medicines is necessary. Clinical and
instrumental-laboratory examination of the patient is also
One should remember that to prevent
development of complications of arterial hypertension, and
other cardiovascular diseases is easier than to
treat these complications.