Extracorporeal fertilization (IVF — in vitro fertilization) is translated from Latin “in glass” and carrying out of embryo provides oocytes conception and first stages of embryonic development.
Indications to IVF procedures are the following:
- female infertility:
- pathological changes in fallopian tubes
- absence of fallopian tubes: congenital absence or absence in the result of operative intervention ( extrauterine pregnancy, acute infection of genital system );
- previous operations.
Extracorporeal fertilization is prescribed, if the woman hasn’t become pregnant within 10-18 months after operation on restoring of tubal permeability. Woman at the age of 35 and older are not recommended these operations and IVF is prescribed at once.
Endometriosis: endometriosis is one of the indications to extracorporeal fertilization, if treatment of this disease was unsuccessful and the disease goes on preventing the patient from becoming pregnant in natural way.
Unclear cause of infertility: 5—10% of couples have unexplained cases of infertility, its cause can’t be detected with analysis and examinations. In this case the couple is prescribed extracorporeal fertilization.
Immunological sterility: if low activity of spermatozoids is observed in the partner, and artificial insemination doesn’t give any results extracorporeal fertilization is recommended.
Male infertility: After the analysis of spermogram the doctor can prescribe IVF or ICSI (Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection) — injection of spermatozoon directly into cytoplasm of oocyte with the thinnest needle. Acute oligospermia ( less than 5 million sperm/ml) is also considered as indication to extracorporeal fertilization. If there are no mature spermatozoons in ejaculate, but single immature cells of spermatogenesis are observed, that is the sign of secretory infertility.
If in ejaculate there is no cell of spermatogenesis the diagnosis is most likely — excretory azoospermia. In this case puncture of egg can be done to determine how high chances are that they contain sufficient quantity of spermatozoons for fertilization . In both cases ICSI is the only method of treatment.